Fighting fr wmns librtin

Fighting fr wmns librtin

Fighting fr Wmn's Librtin

(ssy)

Intrductin

Tdy, wmn r fcd with wht sms t b cntrdictin. Th first wmn's librtin lflt in ustrli ws distributd t dmnstrtin ginst th Vitnm wr in 1969. In ctbr tht yr Zld D'prn nd tw thr wmn chind thmslvs t th ntrnc t th rbitrtin Curt in Mlburn. Fr th first tim tht Curt fund in fvur f qul py fr idnticl wrk. nd in 1972 th Curt ruld in fvur f n py rt fr wrkrs undr n wrd t prvnt mplyrs cntinuing thir vsin f qul py by clssifying jbs wmn did s diffrnt frm mn's.

Yt, thirty-tw yrs ltr, ustrlin wmn wrking full tim still rn n vrg 85% f ml rnings. nd whn ll wmn r cmprd with ll mn, th prcntg is still nly 66% bcus 70% f wmn wrk prt tim. nd th gp is incrsing gin. In th yr My 1999 t My 2000, ml rnings fr full tim rdinry tim incrsd 5.1%, but wmn's nly by 4%.

W hv plthr f nti-discrimintin lws nd qul mplymnt pprtunity () is nshrind in lgisltin. Yt wmn rmin cncntrtd in th lw pid, ftn prt tim jbs with fw crr prspcts. In th lt nintis, in th Dprtmnt f ductin, mplymnt nd Trining, 50% f mplys wr wmn. In th tw lwst lvls, thy md up 75%, but nly 12% f mngmnt. rviw f stff t Griffith Univrsity in Brisbn rvld th sm inqulitis. In 1999, wmn wr 52% f ll stff, 35% f cdmic stff nd 62% f gnrl stff. Yt wmn wr vr-rprsntd in th lwr clssifictins in bth th cdmic nd gnrl rs. Wmn md up 86% f gnrl stff lvl n, 73% in lvl thr, but nly 45% f lvl tn nd 29% bv lvl tn. Thy md up 55% f cdmic lvl psitins, 38% f lvl B, 33% f lvl C, 20% f lvl D, nd nly 14% f lvl . Whn fcultis wr cmprd, th gndr diffrncs wr striking. Wmn cdmics md up 94% f stff in th schl f Nursing, but nly 9% in nginring, 23% in Scinc, 29% in Intrntinl Businss nd Plitics. nd this is univrsity tht clims its ffirmtiv ctin prgrm is wrking! Rprt f Griffith Univrsity Humn Rsurcs Mngmnt Cmmitt cmpild n rqust frm mmbr f th Ntinl Trtiry ductin Unin, 2000. (cpy in pssssin f uthr)

Thirty yrs ftr th sxul librtin mvmnt burst nt th scn, mdi cmmnttrs such s Bttin rndt rgulrly cmpign ginst th right fr singl wmn t hv childrn, singl wmn r dnid IVF in sm stts, ldr wmn wh chs t us IVF r vilifid. Lsbin wmn r still mrginlisd, prtryls f sx in ppulr cultur rmin ml cntrd nd ignrnt f wmn's sxul plsurs. nd th Cthlic Church cntinus t discrimint ginst lsbins nd gy mn with impunity. Intrntinlly, brtin rights rmin tnuus with nw cmpign t dfnd wmn's rights ginst th Bush dministrtin in th US, nd in thr cuntris it rmins illgl. Wmn r still pnly trtd s if thy'r sx bjcts in dvrtising, in ppulr cultur nd in mssivly xpnding sx industry.

Wmn's right t wrk is widly ccptd tdy - fr instnc thr hs bn n cncrtd cmpign ginst mrrid wmn's right t wrk during dcd nd hlf f mss unmplymnt. But it isn't tht simpl. Th Hwrd gvrnmnt slshd funding t cmmunity childcr cntrs, virtully mking wrk fr mny lw-incm wmn n impssibl ptin s child cr cn t up such lrg prcntg f thir incm it is nt wrth it.

S ws th wmn's librtin mvmnt wrth th tim nd nrgy? In spit f it ll th nswr shuld b rsunding ys!. It ws wrth vry minut spnt prtsting, mrching, writing lflts, ttnding mtings nd rising hll. In th sixtis, prgnnt wmn wr simply xpctd t lv wrk with n ccss t mtrnity lv r py. Cntrcptin ws primitiv nd unrlibl, nd illgl, bckyrd brtins wr nightmr witing t hppn, mking sx surc f nxity nd guilt. In 1961 wmn wr nly 25% f th wrkfrc. nly 17% f mrrid wmn btwn th gs f 25 nd 34 nd 21% f mrrid wmn 35 t 44 wr in th pid wrkfrc. In 1966 th prticiptin rt in th pid wrkfrc by wmn ws 36% cmprd with 84% f mn. By 1994 wmn wr 43% f th wrkfrc nd 53% f wmn gd 16-54 wr in pid wrk cmprd with 73% f mn. Hwvr, th drmtic chng ws fr mrrid wmn with 63% f mrrid wmn gd 25-34 in pid wrk nd 71% gd 35 t 44. s lt s th rly sixtis wmn wr nt bl t srv n juris, culd nt gt bnk ln in thir wn right, nd thr ws n supprting prnt's bnfit fr wmn (r mn fr tht mttr) if prtnrship brk up until 1974. Divrc ws lng drwn ut, xpnsiv ffir nd thr wr n rfugs whr wmn culd scp vilnt rltinship until th 1980s.

S n th n hnd, w hv wn significnt gins, n th thr wmn rmin pprssd. Lik ll scil mvmnts, it tk militnt, bld nd dtrmind pliticl ctins t frc rfrms frm th systm. Withut th mvmnt, wmn's rights wuld b vn fwr.

vn thugh w cn win rfrms, whil cpitlism cntinus t xist, thr will cntinu t b wmn's pprssin. Cpitlism is dynmic, chnging scity nd is bl t bsrb ll mnnr f prtsts. Mny f th dmnds f th Wmn's Librtin Mvmnt fittd with th nds f th dvlpd wrld firly sily, s mplyrs nd gvrnmnts drw in millins f wmn t cp with lbur shrtgs cusd by th mssiv bm. Hwvr, th fundmntls f th systm did nt chng. Scil rltins still rstd n xplittin nd pprssin. Th driving frc f scity rmind cmptitin fr prfits fr th minrity wh mk up th cpitlist clss, rthr thn humn nd. S whil wmn's incrsd prticiptin in th pid wrkfrc ws ctully ncurgd, it hd t b n th trms f cpitlism. mplyrs nd gvrnmnts r nt intrstd in nsuring wmn wrk in n nvirnmnt tht fits with thir nd t brst fd thir child, r f fmilis struggling t find th tim fr lng hurs n th jb nd still crry th rspnsibilitis in th hm. n th thr hnd, wmn's pprssin plys vitl rl in mintining th systm nd th pwr f ths wh rul. S this minrity hv vry rl mtril intrst in th prptutin f sxism. Tht is why ultimtly w will nd rvlutin t cmpltly vrthrw cpitlism nd build nw scity in rdr t nd wmn's pprssin. In scity bsd n cllctiv nd dmcrtic cntrl f ll wlth s tht humn nd cn b th bsis fr scil dcisins, it wuld b pssibl t rgnis wrk nd th scilistin nd cr f childrn n th bsis f ppl's nds. Thr wuld nt b ny scil grup wh culd bnfit frm wmn's pprssin. Thn wmn's librtin will b pssibl.

Ths r th thms f this pmphlt.

Why r wmn pprssd?

Frdrick ngls, frind nd cllbrtr f Krl Mrx, shwd tht wmn hv bn pprssd vr sinc th bginning f clss scity. Using cpius nts Mrx hd md thrughut his liftim trying t undrstnd why wmn wr pprssd, in his pth-brking bk Th Fmily, Privt Prprty nd th Stt, publishd in th 1880s, ngls gv th first mtrilist xplntin f wmn's pprssin. H rgud tht with th ris f clsss, th ruling clss fund it ncssry t cntrl, fr th first tim in humn histry, wmn's sxulity in rdr t dtrmin thir hirs fr th inhritnc f prprty. Th nd t cntrl wmn f th uppr clsss ld ultimtly t ids nd lws which, t b ffctiv, hd t pply t ll wmn, nd s stblishd th pprssin f n hlf f humnity. Frdrick ngls, rigins f th Fmily, Prprty nd th Stt

Fr n rgumnt ginst th id tht wmn hv lwys bn pprssd, s Sndr Bldwrth, Rp, Sxul Vilnc nd Cpitlism in Scilist Rviw, N. 5, utumn 1992 Bkmrks, Mlburn. Cpis vilbl frm Scilist ltrntiv. S sxism nd th kind f discrimintin ginst wmn w s vrywhr tdy is dply mbddd in scil nd culturl trditins which strtch bck mny cnturis bfr cpitlism. Hwvr fr th sk f brvity, this pmphlt will nly lk t hw wmn's pprssin is prptutd undr cpitlism. Fr n xplntin f hw wmn's pprssin ws r-muldd nd incrprtd int cpitlism in th trnsitin frm fudlism, s Lindsy Grmn Sx, Clss nd Scilism, Bkmrks, Lndn.

Fr th histry f its trnsltin int ustrli s Sndr Bldwrth, Th Pvrty f Ptrirchy Thry in Scilist Rviw, N. 1, Bkmrks, Mlburn, 1990. Cpis vilbl frm Scilist ltrntiv.

n f th min institutins f cpitlism is th nuclr fmily - tw htrsxul ppl living with thir childrn. In sm culturs th xtndd fmily cntinus, but it plys similr rl s th nuclr fmily in prptuting th gndr strtyps which r cntrl t wmn's pprssin. Th strtyps f mn th prtctr, th prvidr, nd wmn th cring, lving wif nd mthr dpndnt n th mn nd dvtd t hr childrn undrpin th trtmnt f wmn s sx bjcts, th id tht wmn r by ntur mr pssiv nd nurturing thn mn, nd prvid rtinl fr lwr wgs nd fwr jb pprtunitis. Frm ths strtyps fllws th pprssin f lsbins nd gy mn, but ls th sxul pprssin f htrsxul wmn. Th mphsis n mngmy nd wmn's rl s child brrs lys th bsis fr th dnil f wmn's sxul nds, nd th id tht wmn r mr sx bjcts fr mn's plsur.

Th fmily prmiss hvn frm th prssurs f wrk, rfug whr lv is th driving frc rthr thn cmptitin nd xplittin. Unfrtuntly, th rlity is nthing lik th prmis. Bcus th fmily is nt sprt frm nd insultd frm scity. Mn tnd t rn mr, hv mr jb pprtunitis, nd thir rl in th pid wrkfrc is vlud mr highly thn wrk dn in th hm. Thrfr, th rltinship n which th fmily is bsd is frm th vry strt unqul. Fr th vst mjrity f fmilis, th gndr rls r impssibl t scp. vn if thy wuld lik th mn t tk tim ff frm pid wrk t ply mr f rl ding child cr nd huswrk, mst fmilis cnnt ffrd t scrific th wg f th highr rnr. In spit f th fct tht mr wmn wrk utsid th hm, nd tht thy r nw 54% f univrsity studnts in cuntry lik ustrli, th gndr strtyps r bing rinfrcd, nt brkn dwn. vn th cnsrvtiv Institut f Fmily ffirs hs cmmntd tht with wmn cncntrtd in prt tim wrk nd mn incrsingly wrking lngr hurs, vn with th bst f intntins, individul fmilis find it virtully impssibl t chllng th strtyp f th wmn tking mjr rspnsibility fr childrn Irn Wlctt nd Hln Glzr, Wrk nd Fmily Lif. chiving Intgrtin, ustrlin Institut f Fmily Studis, Mlburn, 1995..

This vry rl inqulity in th fmily, cusd by inqulitis in th wrkplc, is bckd up by th drgtry wy wmn r trtd in dvrtising, ppulr film, nd litrtur. Mn r ncurgd t s wmn s t bst, pssiv bjcts f thir dsirs, t wrst, nt wrthy f ny rspct r cntrl vr thir bdis. Thy r ls ncurgd t s thir msculinity s strng, ggrssiv, dminring, stic, dismissiv f snsitivity. Cmbin ll f this with th tndncy fr cpitlism t turn vrything int cmmdity, sx is smthing fr sl, i. prstitutin, nd s is smthing tht cn b tkn by th strng frm th wk. S instd f hvn f lv nd rst, th fmily is ctully n f th mst vilnt plcs fr wmn t b. Mst sxul vilnc ginst wmn is by mn thy knw in th fmily.

Th rlity f th wrkplc bcks up th inqulitis nd vilnc in th fmily. Wmn's lw py mks it difficult t lv lvlss hm, mking thm dpndnt nd mphsising mn's uthrity in th fmily. Th cncntrtin f wmn in th lwst pid jbs mns lck f wmn wh xrcis uthrity, rinfrcing mn's sxist ttituds nd rinfrcing wmn's lck f cnfidnc in thir wn wrth. This ffcts vry r f ur livs frm th mst public t th mst intimt. Wmn wh r public figurs r subjctd t ndlss discussin by th mdi f thir drss sns nd thir pprnc. Wmn wh r ggrssiv nd cnfidnt r ridiculd r trtd s thrtning nd dminring fr th sm bhviur tht is prisd s mbitin r strngth f chrctr in mn. In prsnl rltinships, mst wmn find it difficult t ssrt thir wn dsirs. Rsrch int wmn's sxul ctivity fund tht mjrity f wmn in htrsxul rltinships rrly xprinc rgsm, nt bcus thy r frigid s th myth mkrs wuld hv us bliv, but bcus thy cnnt bring thmslvs t tll thir lvrs wht thy njy nd nd. Th rsn wmn gv fr dnying thir wn plsur is vry rvling. Mst instinctivly knw tht th mn ssumd his rl t b th inititr in ll things sxul. T tk wy his cntrl wuld b t undrmin his cnfidnc, nd thrtn th whl bsis f thir rltinship. Rigmr Brg, Sxulity: Why D Wmn Cm ff Scnd Bst? in Nrm Griv nd ils Burns (ds), ustrlin Wmn. Nw Fminist Prspctivs, xfrd Univrsity Prss, Mlburn, 1987, pp. 165-168.

Th inqulitis btwn wmn nd mn, whil bsd in th scil situtin f hw cpitlism rgniss wrk, r rflctd in th wy wmn nd mn r scilisd frm birth. Studis hv fund tht mthrs smil mr t thir ml childrn whn thy'r ctiv, such s using building blcks, mving rund, but smil mr t thir dughtrs whn thy r quit nd pssiv. Prnts tnd t intrrupt thir dughtrs mr rdily thn thir sns in cnvrstin. thr studis shw tht dults rspnd in rdiclly diffrnt wys t child in th sm circumstncs, dpnding n whthr thy think thy r ml r fml. Ky Bussy, Th First Sciliztin, in Nrm Griv nd ils Burns, ustrlin Wmn. Nw Fminist Prspctivs, pp. 90-104. Fr furthr rding n th scilistin f wmn nd th scil cnstructin f sxulity s th whl sctin Th Mking f Wmn in ustrlin Wmn. Th gndr strtyps s cntrl t wmn's pprssin r s much prt f th wy w r scilisd frm th rlist g, discrimintry bhviur twrds wmn gs lrgly unnticd. Rsrch int th wy ppl cmmunict rvld tht mn initit mst tpics f discussin, intrrupt thrs vstly mr thn wmn, nd gnrlly dmint scil situtins. Infrmtin givn in curs n Cmmunictin t RMIT nd prvidd t m by n f th prticipting studnts. Ths lrnd rspnss bgin with ur rlist cmmunictins with thr humn bings nd r ftn trtd s if thy r purly psychlgicl, r vn ccptd s rprsnttiv f wmn nd mn's diffrnt nturs. But thy cnnt b undrstd utsid th scil circumstncs tht prduc th inqulitis btwn wmn nd mn.

Ths studis, whil imprtnt in undrstnding hw ur scilistin int th strtyps wrks, nd hw wmn nd mn cm t viw thmslvs nd thrs in gndrd wys, d nt xplin why wmn's pprssin cnnt b rtd ut undr cpitlism. n wy t undrstnd why is t lk t wh bnfits frm this stt f ffirs.

Wh gins frm wmn's pprssin?

Sm fminists gr with Mrxists tht wmn's pprssin is cntrd in th fmily. Hwvr, w disgr but wh bnfits frm th fmily. Hidi Hrtmnn, still widly rd in univrsitis, ppulrisd th id tht th fmily ws th rsult f c-prtin btwn ruling clss nd wrking clss mn t frc wmn t srvic mn in th fmily:

Th mtril bs upn which ptrirchy rsts lis mst fundmntlly in mn's cntrl vr wmn's lbr pwr. Mn mintin this cntrl by xcluding wmn frm ccss t sm ssntil prductiv rsurcs (in cpitlist scitis, fr xmpl, jbs tht py living wgs) nd by rstricting wmn's sxulity. Mngmus htrsxul mrrig is n rltivly rcnt nd fficint frm tht sms t llw mn t cntrl bth ths rs. Cntrlling wmn's ccss t rsurcs nd thir sxulity, in turn, llws mn t cntrl wmn's lbr pwr, bth fr th purps f srving mn in mny prsnl nd sxul wys nd fr th purps f rring childrn. Hidi Hrtmnn, Th Unhppy Mrrig f Mrxism nd Fminism: Twrds Mr Prgrssiv Unin, in Lydi Srgnt (d), Wmn nd Rvlutin. discussin f th unhppy mrrig f Mrxism nd Fminism, Blck Rs Bks, Mntrl, 1981, p. 15.

It sms slf-vidnt tht mn r th bnficiris f wmn's pprssin - tht's why it's such ppulr id. Th unqul rltinships btwn wmn nd mn in th fmily, th discrimintin ginst wmn in th wrkfrc, plus prstitutin, nd sxism in gnrl, mn tht mn cn buy sx, cn crc thir wivs, lrd it vr th fmily, brgt thir rspnsibilitis t thir childrn, nd yt b prisd fr thir msculinity. Wmn wh build crr, r simply tk tim wy frm th fmily r much mr likly t b ccusd f nglcting th childrn.

Hwvr, cpitlism is scity fundmntlly dividd by clss, with tiny minrity in pwr vr th vst mjrity thrugh thir wnrship nd cntrl f th mns f prducing scity's wlth. It fllws tht th ids tht dmint scity r ids prpgtd by tht ruling clss nd thir supprtrs. Yu nly hv t think f wh wns nd cntrls th mss mdi, wh wns th publishing huss, wh sts th curricul in schls nd univrsitis. But fundmntlly, it is ths wh hv th pwr vr th right t wrk, wgs nd cnditins, nd th prvisin f scil srvics (r nt) wh crt th mtril bsis n which th ids flurish. It is mplyrs, nt mn in gnrl, wh fight t kp wgs s lw s pssibl. n wy thy d this is trgt grups which cn b pid lss, r mplyd with fwr rights, such s wmn (r migrnts fr xmpl). It is mplyrs nd thir mngrs wh hir nd fir in wy tht kps wmn t th bttm f th rnks, wh dny mtrnity nd ptrnity lv, wh dmnd tht mn wrk lng hurs f vrtim t rduc thir utlys n xtr stff. It is gvrnmnts wh rfus t prvid qulity child cr fr wrking clss cmmunitis. It hs bn gvrnmnt plicis f bth Lbr in th ightis nd rly nintis nd th Clitin sinc 1996, cmbind with mplyrs' ttcks n wrking cnditins tht hv md lw pid, prt tim r csulisd wrk th nrm fr s mny wmn. S it is ths in pwr, bth mn nd wmn, wh hv crtd th circumstncs tht ntrnch th gndr strtyps in th fmily.

Th fmily is clrly nt mintind nd rgud fr in rdr t srvic mn. Sinc Wrld Wr II, it hs suitd cpitlists t mply mrrid wmn in vr incrsing numbrs. Did thy vr cnsult wrking clss mn but hw tht wuld ffct th srvics t thm? Th whl histry f th fmily undr cpitlism shws tht it ws cnsidrd by cpitlists t b th bst institutin t fd, clth nd scilis wrking clss childrn t th lwst pssibl cst. Th unpid lbur f wmn (nd t lssr xtnt f mn t) in th fmily svs th cpitlist stt billins f dllrs vry yr. Tht is why it is gvrnmnts, nd nt mn in gnrl wh ppl t fmily rspnsibilitis t justify ductin fs, dnil f living wg t unmplyd yuth, cuts t hlth cr nd pplling fcilitis fr th gd. Whil th systm ws bming, th wlfr stt culd tk vr sm f th fmily's rspnsibilitis. Nw tht bm is lng pst, th fmily cn b clld upn t fill th gps lft by cut bcks t scil srvics. f curs, in mny lss dvlpd cuntris, wlfr hs nvr tkn th burdn frm th fmily, which is why wmn tk th brunt f pvrty in th third wrld.

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