ѡ

ѡ 2

I. 3

II. ѡ Ӫ 9

III. ѽ 12

IV. Ǭ ڿ 14

V. ūԿѽ 16

ᬽѡ 18

滿߫ 19

ѡ

ƫӡ Ӫ ߫ Ἣԫѽ ߻ѵ὿ӫᡡ

Ѫѡ, ӿ߬ , ӫ ѡ

߬ 񡿬 ߽Ҫڿ (Ӫ ) ӫѡ

ԫ ᵿ ߻ѵ , ߫ԡ ᡡټ

߫Ѽټ (ᡫڿߴ ߿ ԫ ᡿ᡡټ)

һԫ ԫӡ ١. ѽ - ߫ ᡿ һѡ

񡫮 ѡѮ Ҫ ٴ ١ ѡ

ԫ ѡѡ ߻ӫ 񽫪ѡ.

ū ӿ߬ ԫӫ Ҽߴ ᡿

ӿӫᡡ ѡ, ԫ Ӽ ᬵӡ

ԫӿ () ᡿ѡ ѡ. Կ

ի ỿὫ-, ߬ 񡿬, ߻үڿ

߫ѡ, ѡᡡ . ߫ ѽ ١

ݬ ᬵӡ (᡿) ᡫߴ

ѽ ߫ѡ , ᡿ѡ

ѡ (ԡ) - ߬ټ ỿὫ, ԫٮ

ԡ ѡѪ, Ӽ. ج߬

񫻽Ѭ ᬫ ẽ ߫ԫ ԫ, ԫ Ӫ, ᡿Ѽ

ᬵӡ , ߫ߴ ޿ѡ ѽ 񫽪

ѿԿӫ ѡ ӿٽ, ԫ ߴ ߫ԡ

ᡡ ᬵἿ ի, һ ߻ѽѡ

ѡ ᬿ ẫ ߴ ѽү ߫ѡ

ӿ߬ .

Ӫ ԫټ իټ ỿὫ ӿߴ

ԫӿ () ᡿ѡ ѡ, ԫ

ѫի񿼫 ߻ѽѡ Ѯ Կ ӿٽ Ѫ ԡἿ.

ᬫ ߽ ӫի ڿ᡿ . ӿ ᵿ

ӿ ի ߴ ѡѪ,

Ӽ, ᬪ ѿ Ѽѡ.

ū ԡѡ Ѽ Ӫ ( ߬ Ѽ,

ѽ) ѡ Ӫ һ ߫ѽἿ

߫߻ѽ, Ѽѡ ߴ ټ ߫ѡἿ

ѡ ѬѼ ի. ү

ѬԿ (߫) ߬, ӿ߬ ,

ԫ ѽ ᡿ᵿ, ڿ ԫү ӿٽ

Ӫ ӫ߬ ߿ ӫ.

I

ҡ ԫӡ Ӫ ᡿ ѡẫ᡿

ݬ߬. ѬԿ ٻѡ ݬ߬ ҡ ѽ

ӿ߬-᡿ᵿ ѻѡ. ٮ

᡿ᵿ- Ӽ ѽ ߻ޡ ѴѽԿ

ԫӡ Ӫ. ūԫ ߡ Կߴ ԫ ӫ.

ԫ Ѽ ڿߴ ߴ

50 ԫӡ Ӫ ڿ ӫԫ 10 ӿ 񫽽ӫ, ԫ

߫ ӿѽ 25% Ὣ ᵿ ӫҬ.

὿ߴ ӫҬ Կ 160 ῼѡ᡿. Ѯ Ҫ ߫

߫ԡ Ӫ, ԫ ޿ - ԫӡ. 1992 ڿ

Ѽ ѽ ߫ 1.5% . ߡ ѡ ݬ߻ԫ, ڿ

ӫ Ӫ 1991 ԫ ԫ 󡴽ߴ 40

. Ѯ. ū ӫټ , ѡ , ޿

Ӫ Ѭ Ѫ Ѽ ѡټ ( ߬ѡѼ

߽ѡԿ) Ѽ ѡټ . Ӫ

ԫ, իԴ ټ, ӫ

ѡ .

١ޡ Ӫ ᬫ-ԫ ѻԫӿ. 佴 ԫ, ԫ

ߴ Կ ߻ᡡ ӿ, Ӫ ѡ

󫿼 Ѽ. ԫ ӫߴ, ԡԿ, Ѽѡ

߻ Կ߬ , ԫ ߽ ѻӿ,

᡿ᵿ- Ӽ ߫᡿ Ӫ. ѽ ԡٮ

Ὣٮ ߬ ߻ѵӫᡡ Ӫ ӿߴ Ὣ

ӿԿ, իԴ ѿԡ, ԫ ߽ - ԡ ᡿ᵿ-

Ӽ, ѽ Ẽӫ ᡴԫԿ Ѽ

իѡ ӫ.

ĻѪѡѼ ѡ ի Կ Ӫ ѽ

ӿ ߫᡿ ߫ ԫӡ Ӫ ɴ᡿ Ӽ

ᬵӫ Ԭԫ Կ. ٽ ٻ߬

ԿѼ ᬵ `ѽ, ԫ

١, ᬿ ߽ .

ѡ ߽ , ӿ

ᡫѡ Ӫ, ټ ߻ӫѡټ ὿ Ӽ: ԫӿ

() ᡿ѡ ѡ ᬵӡ ԫ

Կ. ᬿ ѽ ѡ ӿٽ, ѯ Ӭ ѡٮ

߬ .

Ѽ ѡ ߫ ѽ ١ ݬ,

ԡԿ , 󽴯ڿߴ Ὣ ᡿ᵿ Ӫ ѽ, ԫ

Ӫ ԫ Ѽ ߡ󡫼 ҡү ߻ӿٽ

Ѫѡ, Կ ӿԿ ӻᵿ Ҭӫ,

ԫ Կ ᡿ѡ ѡ ԡ߿ѽ

ޫ ߽ ѡ. ӿѼ, ӿѽ ѽ

᡿ᵿ, ᬿ Ӫ ѯ Ѭ߬ ү үߴ

ѡټ Ὣټ Ἷ.

ٮ ߴ ټ Ӫѡ, ԫ Ӫ

񫽪 Կ Ѯ ݬ ԫ Ѻԫټ, ἫһѼټ

ӿԿѼ, ԫӫ ߻ Ἣ߿ӫ᡿. ӿԿѼ

ᬫ " ԫӡ Ӫ Ӫ ԫ" ߻ӿٽٮ

ѴѽԿ, ѻѡ ᡡ ᡿ᵿѮ Ӫ ԫ

(.3 .2), ߴ ѽټ. ᬫ ᵿ ѽ

Ӫ, 󫽴ڿ ߬ӿ ӫ ỿ ٴ ١

ѡ, ԫ ӿٽ ԫ ߽ ߽ ߡѡ ӪѬ

ԫ ԫ, ԫ ԫ ӿѽѮ ᪡

٪ ԫ ߿Ҽ ӿٽ, ѽ , ԫ

߻ ҡӫ. ӿ ӿٽԿ Ӵ ߽

᡿ ٻѡ ԫ , ѡ 񫻫ѽ

ԫ Ѯ Ὣ ԫ ѡ ټ ԫ

߽, 񫻫ѽ Ӫ Ѭ὿ ѽѡ

Ѽ ԫ ᵿ. ԫ Ὣ Ἣ ạѡ Ӫ -

Ѭ ӿٽ ѽѡ ԫӫӫ.

ԫ , ߽ ӿٽ Ӫ ӫ ӫ߽

ի ᵿ, ԫ ߽ Ӫ ߿

߫ѡ ѽ ԫ , ԫ ԫ ӿ

Ἷ ӿѽ - ӫ, , ᬽ, ߫󽴯ڿ ٮ

ѽԿ ߫. ū , ԫ ߫ ٿ

ѽ ѡ. Ἣ Ӫ ѽ Ὣ ԡ ѻѡ

߼߽ѡټ, ѡ Ӫ, ԫ ߽ ѽ, 󽴯ڿߴ

Ѽѡ ߬ 񡿬Ἷ, Ѭ὿ ѡ Ҽ

Ӽ, ӿԫ ߫ѡ, - ڿ. ū ߫ԡ

ӫ ڿ ѽ-߬ٮ ỿ, ٮ ѽԿ

Ѻ ߫ѡү ӿٽ. ѽ ѡ.

ūԫ Ѭ߬ ѽ Ӫ ѽ ߫

߫ 񡿬 - ԫ ߫ ӫ ի ӿٽ ѡ

ԫ ᵿ ټ .

᪡ ᬪ , ԫ Ӫ ӿ߬ ӿ

񫽪 ԫ Ҫ Ѽ ߫ѡ ѡ. ѡ ԫ

߿ӫᡫ ᬫ ԫӡ Ӫ. ӿ ԫ իԴ ԫ, ԫ

ԫ. Կ Ӫ ߫ѡ ԫ

߿ 󬽯ѡ ߫ 񡫮 ڿ .

Ǽӿ߬ ߽ѽ ԫ Ӫ ѡ

Ѯټ 񿫡, ԫٮ ߡӴѡ, ѽ

Ѯ, , : ԫ,

ٿ. ӫԿ󡫼 ߽ Ӫ "Ҫ"

Ѽ, Ѯ , Ѯ .

ݻ ᡫѡ Ӫ ߬ ٺ ߫ѡ

. ߽ѡ ѽ Ӫ, ԫ޿

Ӫټ ԫӫ, ӿӫ὿ ᡿ѡ

ѡ. ӫ ѡᵿ Ӫ ѽ ߫ӫߴ ӫԫ

߻ѵ὿ᵿ, ҡٮ ԫ ѽ ӫ޽. һ

һѮ޿ Ӫ ѽ Ҫ ᬵӡ , ӿѡ

Ԭԫ Կ. ᬫ ߽, ӿ߬ Ӽ

ᬵӡټ, ݬ߬ ߫Ӫ᡿ ᡫ󿽿

Ѭ߬. ߡ᡿ , ԫ Ѯ ѡٮ

ի 󫽯 Ӫ Ҭ, , ѡ, ᡡ

ѡ. Ὣ ԫ - ߻ޡ Կ ߻ѵ὿ӫᡡ

Ӫ ѫ᡿Ѽ ҡ ԫ.

ѡ Ӫ ӿ߬ ߬ߴ :

, ᡡ ѡἿ-ԡἿ ỿ;

ӫҬ (߽), ߫ᡡ ԡἿ Ӫ ӿ ѴѽԿ;

ѡ ի: Ѫ 󺡫߫ ѡ-ԡ, ӫ Ӫ

ᵿ, Ѽ ߽, ѡ, ѪѮ

ԿѽѮ; ѡѪ Ӽ, ӿѡ

߫ѡٮ .

ū ԫ, Ӫ ᡿ (ѡ)

ѡ-ԡ , ԫӫ ᬵӡ ,

ԫӿ ᡿ѡ ѡ ߽ ᵿ Ѫѡ

ߴ ߫ѡ Ӽ Ѻ 󫺡ѡ.

ӿ Ѫѡ ᬵӡ ԫ Կ

Ѯ Կߴ ԫԿ ᬵ ߽ ᵿ

. ߫ԡ ӫ ѽ ӿ ߫᡿ Ӫ

ԫӿ ѡٮ , ԫ ӫ

ߴ ߼ѡ ѽѮ ᵿ ߿.

ߴ, ԫ ᡿ ԡ ߫߿

ѡ Կ Ӽ.

ӿѽ ӫѡ ѡ ᡿ᵫ- Ӽ

޿ߴ ѡ Ӫ Ѫټ ẵἿ , ԫ

ߡ ᬫӡԿ ߫ᡴߴ. ޿ ޿ Ӫ,

Ѽ , ߡ ߫὿ (ԫӿ)

᡿ѡ ѡ, ԫ ү ۴ߡߴ Һ

ᬫѡ ԡ, Ѽڿߴ ӿ ߫Ѽټ ᡿ᵿ

Ӭ ѡٮ ߬ . ߯ "߬" Ӽ

ỿ, 󫽴 ԫ ӫ ὿ ӿӫ ԫԿ

Ѽ ӫᪿ Ѽ ټ ѽ ѽ ӫԬ ӫ

󽫪ѡ ߻ѽѡ Ѯ Կ

ѽ߬ ӿٽ Ѫ ԫἿ. ū Կ ѽ,

᡿ᵿ- Ӽ Ӫ ѴѽԿ, ի񡫮,

߻ ѡ Ѫ ᬬҼҽӫ᡿

ѫի ߫ ѽ ỿὫ

᡿ᵿ, ԡ , ѽڿ Ѫ ߵѡѡ

Կ ԫ ߫ ѡ.

ԫү һѡ ӫ Ӽӫ᡿ ߫Ѽѡ Ӫ ү

ᬿ, ԫ ߫ߴ ѡ ߫ԡ, "ѽ"

߫ѡԿ. ѡ ѽѡ ߽Ҫ 񫻫ѽټ

ԫ Ѽѡ ٪᡿ ԡ. 󿽫,

ӿүߴ ᬵӡ Ԭԫ ԫ Կ,

իԴ ԫ ῼѡ᡿ ߻ѵ. ԫ Ҫ ߫ᵿ

߫ѡ, Ҽ޿ ᬫ ԫٮ

Ẽ ỿ. ạѡ Ӫ ԫ ,

߻ ӿٽ ߬ ߬ ᵿ,

ӫߴ Ѽ ѽ. ߽ ỿὫᬫѮ Ӫ ԫ

ү ߽ ԫ ӿѽѮ , ߫ѡ

Ѯ , ߴ ߿ټ ỿὫἿ, ԫ

ᬵӡ-᡿ᡡ Ӫ ߴ 󡫺, ӫ

ԫӫ ߫ѡ ԫ ӿѽѮ. ᬿ ѡ

ӿ ỿὫڿڿ Ӫ, ߬ Ѽߴ

Կӫ ߫ԡѡ Ѫ ѡ Կӫᡡٮ ỿ

ԫ - ԫ ӿٽ ߬ 񡿬.

Ӫ ߻߫ ѡ Ҽ ٻ ѡ

ᬫ ߽ 񫽪 ԡ߿ѽ Ҽѡټ. ԫ Կߴ

Կᵿ ԫ ѴѽԿ, ѡ ӿѽ

ӿӪ "Ὣѡ". ߫ ߬ߴ

ߡ ạѡ Ӫ. ߽ᮡ ߿ Ӫ,

᡿ᡡ ᬵӡ , ԿԿ߬ ἡ ,

Ѽ ӿ ᡿ѡ ѡ. ӿ, Ἣ

߫󽴽 0.4%, ()

߿Կ Ѽ ѽ 0.6 1.2%. ߫ӫᡡ ߫ѡ

ῡ߫ Խ ߫ѡ ỿὫ ۴Կ

ԫ ӿٽ ѽԿ Ѯү ԫ

ӿѽ. ỿὫڿ Ӫ

ѽ ѡ ٮ ѡ ߡ ӫѽ

Ӫ ӿٽ. 1991 60% ӿӫᡡ Ӫ

ѽ Ӽ ᬵӡ . Ӫ ѡ

߫Ѯ - ԫ ԫ ӿѽ - ѻѡ

󫽯ү " ", ѡ "Һѵ ԫ

ӿٽ".

һѡ, ᡡ Ѽ Ѯ ӿ߬

߻ӿٽ ӻᵿ Կ, Ӽӫ᡿

߫Ѽѡ 󿽿ᡡ Ӫ. ἫһѼ Ѻԫ Ӽ

߬ Կ ԫ ԫ ߼߽ ѽ,

ӿ߬ ߽ѽ, ӡټ ԿѼ ߫ѡ. ᬫ Կ

Ӫ ỿὫݬѮ. - ѽ

ѡ ߽Ҫ᡿ ԫ ӫ, ԫٮ 񫽪ѡ

ӿ߿ ߫ ӿٽ. Ӫ Ѫѡ Կ

߬ү ѡ, 󽴯ڿߴ ѡἿ ԫ

ӿѽ Ѭ ѫիү .

ᬵٮ ѻٮ ߻ӿٽ Ӫ ӿ

Ѻѡ ԫ ᡿ԫ ԫ ,

Ѭ ݬ߻ᵿ ӿٽ. ߽ Ѽ ߼ӿ

὿ Ѯүڿ - ԫ, ԫ ӿѽ

ԡ Ӫ, ԫ ѻ ѡ : Ѽ

߽Ҫڿ ԫ ӿѽ. ū߽ ԫ ѽ, ԫ

߫ԡ ݬ߻Կӫ ԫ ԫ, ᡿ ߽Ҫڿ

߫ Ҵ Ѻԫ Ѻҽԫ ѴѽԿ. ӿٽ

Ѭߴ Ἣ ѡ ߽ ᡿ᵿ ԫ

ӫ, ߫ѡ ߬ ᵿ. Ӫ᡿ Ӫ

޿ ѡẫ᡿ ỻԫ Ѯ ӫԫ ի

Ӫ ԫ, ԫ Ѽ 󽴽 ߫ ѽү

, ӿ߿ ԫ 󫺼ѡ , ӿٽ.

ӿ ߫᡿ ߫ѡ Ӫ ӿ ߻ӿٽԿ

ߴ ߫ ӫѬ. ἫһѼ Ӫ Ѫѡ

Ὣ ߿.

Կ "߻ӿٽ ӻᵿ" ߫Ѽ ߫

Ѽ, ԫ ߴ ἫһѼ, ԫ ߼ӿ

ѡ ӿٽ, ԫ ӫԫ ߻ӫ

ӫѡ . ū߬ ߻ӿٽ Ӫ ߫ѡ-

ỿὫ, ߴ, 񡫮 ԫӫ, ߫񡿬

߽Ҫڿ ӻԫ ѡ, -

Ѭ߬ ҡү ԫ ԫ ѡ ԫ ӿٽ

߬ 񡿬Ἷ. Ӫ ߫ ԫ, ԫ

߫ Կ "ѡ, Ѭ߬ ᡿ᵿ",

Ѻ߿ٮ Ѭ ԡѡ, 󽴯ڿ һѡ

իѡ ѴѽԿ ѡ ѬԿ.

߽ , ԫ ԫ ᡫߴ ӿٽ

Կߴ, 󫺡ѡ ԡ

߫߫᡿ Ѻٮ ޿ѡ ԫ Ѯ,

һ ᡿ ߫᡿ ߽, 󫽴ڿ ѮѼ

޿ӿ Ѽ ᵿ, ԫ ԫ ѡ ӻ. ԫ

Ѽ ừ Ѽѡ ޿ ڿ ԫӫ

ի ߬ѽ ѡ ߫ ӻ. ԡ ߻ӿٽ

Ӫ . ġ ᡿ү ѻѡ ѡ

ӻ ߿Կ ѻѡ ѬԿԿ ߽Ҫ᡿

"ߡ ӫ" - ԫ ӫ Ѽߴ ѽ

. Ҫѡ Կٮ, ԫ ᵿٮ ӫѡ

ի.

ԫӫ ߻ӿٽ Ӫ , ԫ Ѯ

ᬵӫ, ڿ, ѽڿ ӿٽ

᡿ᵿ ߽Ҫ᡿ ԫ ӫ. ᬫ ߽ ԫټ

ӿѽѴ ߴ Ἷ, ӿԫ 񿡫ԡ,

ỽԿ ߻᡿ ԫ Ѯ ᡿, Ҫ ѯߴ

Ӫ. ū ԫ, ԫ Ѯ ѻᵿ Ӫ

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